This presumes that you have first performed the bench checklist for your rifle, and now have it at a shooting range for live fire. This checklist is focused primarily upon the upper receiver assembly, because the lower receiver's functions can be mostly tested at home, instead of the range.
Verify all parts are present
Bolt carrier, bolt, forward assist, charging handle - all these parts should be present.
Use bolt hold open to make sure the bolt travels back far enough
Your rifle should hold the bolt back when there is a magazine inserted, and no round in chamber. Verify that this is the case first, and if it is not, then you can't perform this test.
Using factory ammunition, load only one round into your magazine, then fire it. If the bolt fails to lock open, then either you're undergassed, unlubed / not broken in, or you have a spring / buffer combination installed which is too stiff/heavy.