See also: Sporting vs Non-Sporting FirearmsDRAFT STATUS ONLY!!!
Do not rely upon this page yet, it has NOT been vetted and it is NOT authoritative. Gunwiki.net does not yet have an ATF letter on the parts count for the USC (although we hope to obtain a copy today)!
The United States has a lovely bit of import law, Title 18 USC § 922(r), which prevents most of the more interesting rifle designs from being directly imported into the US. The import regulations are commonly referred to as "922(r)" in gun circles.
In order to legally build a non-sporting rifle out of a parts kit (or modify a 'sporting' rifle to include 'non-sporting' features), no more than 10 imported parts may remain in the final product. This is generally done by replacing foreign-made parts with domestically-built parts.
It's worth knowing that the USC has 14 ATF-counted parts - 6 do not apply to the USC-series rifles. So, for folks who insist on only half-understanding 922(r), the USC needs 4 US-made parts to be compliant.
Although the USC does have what we would call a bolt, ATF does not consider it to be one because it's one part with the bolt carrier.
-- SeanNewton - 27 Jan 2012